It follows on from our previous work to explore the ways to engage and support inactive people to become active. The Get Healthy, Get Active fund was launched in to learn whether sport and physical activity projects can be designed to tackle inactivity, improve public health, reduce health inequalities and manage or prevent long-term health conditions. The investment held the specific aim to improve the evidence base for the effectiveness of sport and physical activity in improving population level health. The interventions test everything from the role of healthcare professionals and volunteers to how we change attitudes to physical activity.
A thematic analysis of this insight highlighted 10 key principles for developing projects and services to tackle inactivity. This section will explore the key learnings and principles across the GHGA programme which can be utilised in future interventions to tackle the complex nature of inactivity and support population health and well-being in both the prevention and treatment of long term conditions.
Walking has become the cornerstone of physical activity promotion for public health. One of the attractions of this form of activity is that it can be recommended by health professionals but done with little or no supervision. The health benefits of walking depend at least in part, on the relative exercise intensity, determined by walking speed. Where walking is undertaken without supervision, self-selected walking speed is an important determinant of health benefit.
This talk will present the findings of a systematic review of studies which have measured self-selected walking speed of apparently healthy adults. Where sufficient data are available we will analyse walking speed and intensity by age, gender, BMI and activity status e. Dose response of walking and CVD risk factors: frequency, intensity, bout duration, length and volume.
Walking interventions in healthy populations show improvements for many cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors. As the dose-response characteristics between walking and the risk factors are of relevance for population interventions we assessed the relationships between the changes in CVD risk factors and the frequency, intensity, bout duration, length and volume of supervised walking interventions based on a systematic review of 37 randomized controlled trials.
Pooled meta-analyses showed statistically significant favorable effects of walking interventions for seven CVD risk factors: body mass, BMI, body fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and VO 2 max. Despite testing 91 possible dose-response relationships, meta-regression analysis indicated only seven statistically significant associations.
Our findings suggest that the CVD benefits are largely independent of the frequency, intensity, bout duration, length and volume of walking interventions. These observations will be discussed with the perspective of promoting walking for population health. Walking is perhaps the most accessible form of physical activity for the large majority of the population. There is relatively little evidence on the association between self-reported walking pace and mortality at the population level. This talk will present the results of a prospective analysis included in the ISPAH BJSM Special Issue on walking and health that examined the association between self-reported walking pace and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among 50, British adults.
These findings and the relevant recent literature will be discussed in the context of whether any observed associations are causal or predictive, and what role measured and unmeasured confounding may play in shaping these associations. A summary of current evidence is needed for cadence-based metrics supporting benchmark standard or point references and threshold minimums associated with desired outcomes values that are informed by a systematic process. Therefore, a comprehensive search strategy was conducted to identify relevant studies focused on walking cadence and intensity for human adults.
There was a strong relationship between cadence as measured by direct observation and objective assessments and intensity indirect calorimetry. A brief history of global physical activity policy measures and why they matter. Physical inactivity accounts for as many as 5 million deaths per year globally but has yet to be addressed effectively by most governments or the World Health Organization WHO.
Reasonable evidence for effective strategies exist, and several countries have implemented consistent public health policies and programs that have increased population prevalence of regular physical activity. Understanding why and how a few countries have developed sound public health programs for physical activity while most have not requires monitoring and evaluating policy, programmatic, and perhaps even research indicators in addition to more traditional surveillance of physical activity participation at the population level.
Physical activity has lagged behind other equivalently important global public health issues as a priority for WHO and most countries. This may in part reflect inadequate measurement of key factors related to physical activity such as population prevalence, burden and cost, policies, programs, and recommendations. It may also reflect insufficient evidence based advocacy for more effectively addressing physical inactivity as a public health priority. In this symposium we will address several key questions. Is it feasible to track physical activity policy for children and adults at the country level?
How can policy indicators best be used for advocacy and to guide policy and programs? What organizations can or should monitor and evaluate physical activity policies globally? Are there lessons to be learned from global tobacco policy? Introduction: This presentation examines the relevance of tobacco, alcohol and obesity policies on promoting population physical activity PA. Much rhetoric surrounds tobacco policy successes, and is assumed transferable to PA.
A narrative synthesis considered key themes and successes, and their applicability to PA. Results: Effective tobacco policy instruments include legislation, taxation, environmental regulation, incentives, social norms-changing campaigns, capacity building and clinical settings. Together these have diffused into many affluent countries, but policy progress remains slow in LMICs. For obesity policy, some countries report repeated sequences of policy frameworks, incompletely implemented without sustainable government resourcing.
For reducing sugar sweetened beverages, regulatory and taxation frameworks are effective, as are reformulation strategies and media campaigns. Similar approaches are effective for alcohol regulation and environmental restriction. Conclusions: The multisectoral, complex aetiology of physical inactivity makes the policy context challenging. No single policy instruments can solve the cross-sectoral challenge of inactivity. Policy diffusion and policy emulation have not occurred nationally.
Background: Reducing car dependency in favour of health-enhancing active travel can address the issues of prolonged sitting and physical inactivity. This study utilises transportation-sector population surveys to develop interdisciplinary policy relevant indicators for benchmarking and progress tracking. Results: The adjusted yearly decline in the prevalence of CD was small 0. DW remained unchanged, from Conclusion: These indicators can serve both transportation and health sectors wherever transport surveys exist, for benchmarking, monitoring and setting area- specific goals that are aligned with public health and transport policies.
Mark S. Methods: This presentation discusses findings from the Global Matrix with a focus on policy-related lessons learned from the grades. Results: Overall, the results suggest a complex network of strengths and limitations across countries, with some global patterns emerging when comparing countries clustered by continent, Human Development Index, or inequality indices.
A policy—implementation disconnect or socio-cultural variation may partially explain this paradox. Conclusions: International cooperation and cross-fertilization is encouraged to address existing challenges, understand underlying determinants, conceive innovative solutions, challenge conventional dogma, and mitigate the global childhood inactivity crisis. Introduction: Increasing physical activity PA is a global priority.
Multiple distal and proximal determinants beyond individual choice are involved in explaining this modifiable risk factor. High quality resources to inform government policy and actions are essential for increasing PA. Objective: Assess lessons learned after three years of policy monitoring by GoPA!. Results: In , GoPA! In GoPA!
Results varied greatly, however the feasibility of collecting detailed PA policy data was demonstrated. Conclusion: National PA policy varies substantially by geographic area and country income group. PA policy indicators can enhance understanding of the links between policy and population levels of PA. Non-communicable diseases NCDs are the leading cause of death globally, accounting for two out of every three deaths, threatening global sustainable development.
The prevention of cancer and other NCDs is arguably one of the most significant public health challenges of the 21st century. Public policy is critical to create environments conducive to healthy and active ways of living. Key findings of the report include strong evidence that physical activity protects against several cancers and that greater body fatness is a cause of many.
The new framework demonstrates how common policy levers can be applied across these risk factors to make progress in achieving the global NCD targets and support the forthcoming WHO Global Action Plan to promote physical activity. Case studies of implemented physical activity policy actions from around the world will be presented. Exploring the use of systems mapping in the development and dissemination of the draft WHO Global Action Plan to promote physical activity. These aim to explore and understand the multiple and interacting influences on behaviours, and set them within the context of a complex adaptive system, rather than a set of separate and disconnected issues.
Activities: We set out to explore the extent to which systems thinking could help in the development and dissemination of the GAPPA. We developed a number of draft causal loop diagrams CLDs for physical activity. These set out the multiple and interacting influences on physical activity, including environmental; psychological and social influences. Results and Conclusions: The mapping process provided extremely interesting insights into the draft GAPPA, showed the extent to which it was taking a global whole systems approach, and identified gaps to be filled.
Validation of the Sedentary Sphere in children: Does wrist or accelerometer brand matter? Introduction: Posture classification is vital to sedentary behaviour measurement and central to its definition, though assessing posture using wrist-worn accelerometers is challenging. The Sedentary Sphere allows classification of posture based on arm elevation and has been validated in adults.
This study aimed to further validate the Sedentary Sphere method of classifying posture from accelerometers worn on either wrist in children. Percent accuracy for posture estimates from both wrists and accelerometer brands were calculated. The method is equally valid with data from either wrist and either brand of device and removes the requirement for multiple devices to assess both physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children.
Aston K. McCullough, Elroy J. Aguiar, Scott W. Ducharme, Christopher C. Recent studies have used triaxial accelerometer activity counts to distinguish standing time from sitting time. Further research is needed on methods for classifying standing versus sitting using step-based metrics. For each 5-min bout, cadence signals were deconstructed in both the time and frequency domains.
Signal features from the time and frequency domains were modeled as predictors of each respective task using a Decision Tree algorithm CART within a one-versus-all classification paradigm. At the hip, values were—SITR: 0. Innovations in the use of raw accelerometry in epidemiology: A basis for harmonisation of physical activity outcomes across international datasets. Background: To capitalise on the increasing availability of accelerometry data for epidemiological research it is desirable to pool data from multiple surveys worldwide. This study aimed to establish which physical activity outcomes can be considered equivalent between three research-grade accelerometer brands worn on the dominant and non-dominant wrist.
Conclusion: Free-living measures of average dynamic acceleration, and outputs that depend on acceleration magnitude, are higher at the dominant relative to the non-dominant wrist. Outputs that take into account the distribution of data, e. Cadence was directly observed.
Results: Cadence thresholds for the various indicators that corresponded to moderate and vigorous intensity were, respectively: METs — Be aware of the consequences of cutting your cut-point when analysing sedentary behaviour and physical activity in youth. Children wore an accelerometer at their right hip. Purpose: The U. The data are being prepared for public release. This presentation will describe how the NHANES accelerometer data are being processed and how they will be made available.
Methods: Data are being processed on a protected cloud account provided by Amazon Web Services. Gt3x files were converted to an open source, flexible format for processing. A system for running data summarization algorithms in parallel using Python, Java, or R code was developed and tested with pilot data from approximately participants and then scaled up. Data quality assessment was performed by examining distributions of selected signal features and summary data.
Daily and minute-level data will be provided for download from NCHS, while higher resolution data may require processing within a cloud environment. Physical activity levels in women and men measured by accelerometer. Introduction: The health benefits of physical activity PA is undisputable. However, surveillance data of population PA patterns assessed objectively is rare. Results: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA averaged The participants spent most of their time in sedentary and light PA; Built environment change and neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage: are neighbourhood differences widening over time, and what are the implications for inequalities in physical activity and health?
Introduction: Reducing health inequality is a goal of many governments and international health authorities. As cities change and grow, a key question is whether changes in their built environments lead to a widening of inequalities in physical activity leisure and transport-related and health. This longitudinal study tracks built environment change over time — in a fast-growing high-income city Brisbane, Australia and examines whether change differs by neighbourhood disadvantage and the implications for inequalities in physical activity and health.
The built environment is measured using residential density, land-use mix, street connectivity, street lights, bike paths, and parks. Neighbourhood disadvantage is measured using a Census-based index. Results: Built environment increases were observed for 3- and 4-way intersections, residential density, street lights, and bike paths, whereas land-use mix decreased. Disadvantaged neighbourhoods had a higher number of 4-way intersections and street lights, they were more residentially dense, had more metres of bike path, and had a more diverse land-use mix.
Advantaged neighbourhoods had more 3-way intersections and greater park coverage. The rate of built environment change differed by neighbourhood disadvantage for most of the measures. Conclusion: The magnitude and direction of built environment change showed a complex pattern which suggested that at a minimum, inequalities in physical activity and health will be sustained in the future.
Built environmental correlates of utilitarian walking among older adults: Does the type of activity places matter? Introduction: Evidence on environmental determinants of utilitarian walking stresses the necessity to distinguish between commuting and errand. Both the location and the type of activity are critical to understand travel modes. This study examines the influence of the type of activity conducted at a given location on walking, and the interaction effect with the built environment and distance to the place of residence.
Information related to demographics, health status and regular activity locations were collected using standard questionnaires and the VERITAS survey. Associations between type of activity personal, shop, free time, visit, meal, appointment , environmental characteristics density of amenities, diversity, connectivity, public transport frequency , distance, and walking were analysed by generalized estimating equations models with logit link accounting for demographics, neighborhood self-selection, and physical health.
Results: The type of activity is a strong correlate of walking among elders. While density and diversity of amenities were associated with walking, evidence of interactions with the type of activity is less clear. The barrier effect of distance on walking strongly differ by type of activity. Introduction: Attending university often involves moving from a family home environment to a more independent living and is accompanied by unhealthy behaviour changes such as decreasing physical activity PA.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that the university environment and characteristics have on student PA behaviour. Two-step cluster analysis identified any PA behavioural patterns, while binary logistic regressions examined the influence of the university environment on these patterns. Age, sex, household income, and travel time to university were all controlled for in the analysis.
Results: Five clusters were identified from the analysis and were given names based on key behaviours: Not Active, Active Commuter, Active in University, Active outside University, and Active Everywhere. Conclusion: Increasing our knowledge of interactions between PA and the environment can aid with the development or adaption of university campuses to create optimum conditions for increasing PA and overall health of students. Walkability index, land-use-mix, street connectivity, residential density and walking for transportation in Sao Paulo city, Brazil.
Aim: To create walkability index based in residential density, street connectivity, land-use-mix; and to verify the relationship of these variables with walking for transportation in adults who live in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Walking for transportation was evaluated by IPAQ questionnaire. Walkability index was elaborated based on residential density, land-use-mix and street connectivity that were obtained on census tract level where people live. We used Kruskal-Wallis and Poisson regression for statistical analysis. Only land-use-mix was associated with walking for transportation.
Conclusion: Only land-use-mix was associated with walking for transportation in adults who live in Sao Paulo. It is important to discuss variables that compose the walkability index in megacities. Increasing land-use-mix in other areas of the city favors walking for transportation with benefits for population health.
Investigating the impact of urban regeneration on public health: A real world natural experiment. Introduction: There is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of large-scale environmental interventions to help sustain changes in physical activity PA behaviours. The Connswater Community Greenway CCG is an example of a natural experiment, providing an opportunity to evaluate the public health impact of a major urban regeneration project in Belfast, UK.
Methods: A representative random sample of 1, adults from 62 neighbourhoods in Belfast was recruited prior to the CCG regeneration Feb — Jan As part of a broader mixed evaluation, household surveys are being repeated after completion of the CCG in and pre-post assessment of the effects of the CCG on physical activity and health will be conducted. The economic merit of walkable neighbourhoods: A case study in Melbourne, Australia. Introduction: In Australia, health and economic outcomes of urban developments have not been formally quantified.
We address this using a method that could be applied to planned urban developments. Methods: Health and economic outcomes were compared between three urban developments in Melbourne, Australia by combining a model estimating the probability of transport walking with a proportional multi-state multi-cohort life table model. Urban developments included a greenfield development, infill development, and a composite of highly walkable areas in Melbourne.
Built environment features for each development and data on 16, adults from the Victorian Integrated Survey of Transport and Activity were used to simulate transport walking probabilities, which were then used in the proportional multi-state multi-cohort life table model to quantify health and economic outcomes between pairs of urban developments.
Conclusions: Quantifying health and economic outcomes for different urban developments provides important information of the unassessed consequences of city design. This research demonstrates that more walkable neighbourhoods could significantly contribute to population health and the economy.
This presentation will explore the preliminary analyses in terms of: driver perceptions; public support; perceptions of safety; road speeds; number and type of road casualties; and attitudes and levels of walking and cycling. Data sources for analyses will include routinely collected data e.
We also implemented our own Driver and Resident Perceptions survey pre and post implementation in 3 of 6 implementation zones in Edinburgh. Data were collected at varying time points and with varying data collection points. As a result, we will use a number of designs and models to analyse the effects including pre-post, time-series and controlled before-and-after designs. Preliminary data analyses are planned for April For each of the research questions we will also explore where and when possible and using appropriate techniques how the effects differ between areas and population groups age, gender, and socioeconomic status and the timeframe for different effects.
Findings will be used to test, refine and modify the Programme Theory and Logic Model. Choose to Move: Evaluation of a physical activity intervention for older adults delivered at scale across BC, Canada. We evaluated intervention effectiveness at both organizations. Using implementation and scale up frameworks we collaborated with organizations to adapt CTM delivery to their organizational context.
We gathered socio-demographic characteristics at baseline and assessed our primary PA and secondary mobility and social connectedness outcomes at baseline, 3 and 6 months via questionnaire. We explored the role of delivery organization in participant level outcomes via mixed effects models. Results: On average, PA, and mobility increased, and loneliness decreased from 0 to 3 and 6 months.
Social exclusion was decreased at 3, but not 6 months. Despite this, change over time for PA, loneliness and social exclusion was similar between organizations. However, at 6 months, increased mobility was only apparent at one organization. Conclusion: The two delivery organizations appear to serve different populations which is valuable for extending reach. Despite differences at baseline, the response to the intervention was similar for many key outcomes among participants at each delivery organization.
The effects of a week comprehensive golf training program on functional fitness in older adults. Introduction: Aging is associated with declines in muscular performance, cardiovascular endurance, and balance that can impair the ability to perform activities of daily living. Multimodal physical activity interventions are effective in attenuating these declines. Golf is a popular recreational activity that contains multiple components which include walking the golf course, bending over to pick up a golf ball, and high-velocity golf swings.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a comprehensive golf training program on the functional fitness of older adults. Methods: Eight, non-golfing older adults Age: Training consisted of complimentary exercises, swing training, and a gradual introduction to golf play. These improvements can be attributed to the multimodal nature of golf play. However, grip strength did not improve following the golf training program, likely due to the low-load, high-velocity movement pattern of the golf swing.
Overall, these results support a comprehensive golf training program as a plausible activity intervention to improve function in older adults. The impact of physical activity and sitting time on mobility disability-free life expectancy. Introduction: Low physical activity PA and high sitting time ST are risk factors for development of mobility disability.
However, their impact on mobility disability-free life expectancy has not been estimated. Mortality was determined by linkage to the National Death Index. Total life expectancy and mobility disability-free life years were estimated using continuous-time multi-state survival models. Results: Life expectancy was higher in high PA women 8. The proportion of remaining years that were mobility disability-free was higher in high PA women Conclusion: ST had a greater impact on total life expectancy than PA, whereas PA had a greater impact on years lived without mobility disability.
Targeting both behaviours will ensure longer and healthier lives for older women. Device-measured and self-reported sedentary behaviour and quality of life: a prospective study of community-dwelling older men. Barbara J. Background: In older adults, structured exercise is associated with better quality of life QoL , but associations with sedentary behaviours SB are less clear. We investigate how SB total and types are prospectively related to QoL, and whether SES or presence of mobility limitations modify associations. Methods: Cohort of men recruited in UK primary care practices.
Regression models investigated associations between SB and QoL in men with sufficient data. Interactions with SES and functional limitations were tested. Total SB accelerometer-measured or self-reported did not vary by education or occupation, but men with less education and manual occupation reported more TV and car-based SB, and less computer and reading SB.
Mean QoL was The British Heart Foundation had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Why do older adults start and continue to walk with organised walking groups?
Introduction: Older adults are one of the least active groups within the UK, and the Government recommends walking for older adults to meet PA guidelines Department of Health, Group walking also provides shared experiences and social opportunities Killingback, Understanding why older adults start and continue to walk in groups will help promote walking. The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to identify why older adults start and continue walking in organised groups. Factors relating to starting, continuing will be determined, including overlap. Inclusion criteria comprised walkers aged 60 plus, attendance at walking groups up to 6 months initiation phase and 6 months plus continuing phase.
Thematic synthesis methodology was undertaken. Seven studies reported initiation and continuing findings, the other seven initiation only. Conclusion: Older adult group walkers worldwide report similar reasons for starting and continuing to walk with groups. Specific factors relating to health status, preferred environment, and older age, may assist with adherence.
Introduction: The benefits of physical activity after breast cancer are well recognized, but the majority of survivors are insufficiently active. Methods: We recruited and randomised 83 inactive, postmenopausal women who had finished primary treatment for stage I-III breast cancer to an intervention or control group. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to examine between-group differences post-intervention.
Whether such wearable technology-based interventions can create sustainable behavioural change should be assessed in future research. A large-scale, multi-centre, pragmatic randomised control trial to prevent mobility-related disability in older adults. Successful recruitment strategies and findings from the baseline data. During old age, there is a population-wide transition towards frailty and increased demand for health and social care services. The US-based LIFE Study showed that improving fitness and leg muscle strength can prevent this transition to mobility-related disability in moderately frail older people.
Aims: To adapt the LIFE intervention to a large, pragmatic UK-based multi-site trial to prevent progression to mobility-related disability in moderately frail older adults. Methods: Using behaviour change theory and consultation with service users, service providers and experts in the field, we developed a logic model, identified targets for change and behaviour change strategies.
Recruitment strategies and challenges and participant baseline profiles will be presented. Twenty-seven REACT intervention groups are receiving twice-weekly aerobic, muscle-strengthening, flexibility and balance group exercise sessions for 12 weeks , followed by weekly sessions for 9 months. REACT is delivered by qualified exercise professionals in voluntary sector and local authority settings.
Conclusions: This first international presentation of REACT baseline findings describes a complex, evidence-based intervention that has successfully engaged a hard to recruit group through targeted approaches that could be applied to other community-based physical activity programmes. The central role of local partners in REACT delivery has embedded skills in communities and built in future sustainability. Acute improvements in mathematics performance following randomisation to the Daily Mile versus sedentary controls in primary school children.
School based interventions assessing the acute impact of physical activity PA on AP and cognition suggest variable effects. Conclusion: TDM accumulated an average 9. Subsequently, TDM may be used strategically prior to mathematics sessions to enhance performance. Longer-term studies are required to assess outcome and implementation. You want to do it, but how will you get it done? Purpose: School is an ideal setting to promote and increase physical activity PA in children.
The potential cognitive and academic benefits of PA might increase chances of successful implementation. Methods: Twenty-six face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary school teachers grades 5 and 6 and principals in The Netherlands, and analysed using inductive content analysis. Future research is needed to strengthen the evidence on the effects of PA for academic purposes, and should examine the forms of PA that are both effective as well as feasible in the school setting.
Did executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being mediate the effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in ten-year-old children? Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids ASK study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy.
An ANCOVA model with latent variable structural equation modeling was estimated using data from children the lower third in academic performance in numeracy at baseline. The model consisted of the three latent factors as mediators; executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being. Our results suggest that the effect of the intervention on performance in numeracy in the present sample is not explained by change in executive function, behavioral self-regulation, or school related well-being. We suggest this finding mainly could be explained by the lack of effect of the intervention on the mediators, which might be due to an insufficient dose of physical activity.
Reviewing peer-to-peer physical activity interventions with youth: interventions, rationales and effects. Introduction: Peer-to-peer approaches have shown positive effects within different areas and settings for the promotion of health and well-being. Such approaches may be particularly relevant in interventions targeting youth, since young people are especially amenable to peer influences.
Previous reviews have established effects of peer-to-peer interventions with youth related to e. However, peer-led interventions with youth have not previously been reviewed with a primary focus on physical activity interventions. Two reviewers screened abstracts. Forty-five studies were selected for in-depth analysis. Results: The review characterises and analyses the diverse range of physical activity-related peer interventions involving youth peer leaders. The study synthesises and discusses intervention characteristics; theoretical approaches; the education, role and influence of peer leaders; and health-related effects on peer leaders and participants.
School- and community-based intervention studies from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America have been included in the review. Conclusion: The synthesis and analysis provides a knowledge base of rationales, theoretical approaches and types of physical activity interventions, as well as health-related effects on peer leaders and participants. These understandings should be of use for researchers and practitioners working with peer-to-peer approaches in this field. The 8-week intervention was delivered in three schools and involved participants. Each school recruited girls to become PA-leaders, who received leadership training delivered by undergraduate PA students, who subsequently acted as their intervention mentors and role models.
The PA-leaders were encouraged to support their school peers to engage in more PA. Two of the schools provided organised after-school PA opportunities which the PA-leaders actively promoted. The acceptability, practicality, engagement, and perceived success of the intervention was investigated using focus groups and interviews. Qualitative analysis adopted deductive and inductive methods, using SCT and SDT as thematic frameworks, and then exploring additional emergent themes.
Conclusions: This intervention was reported to be feasible and acceptable among mentors and PA-leaders. Teachers were supportive of the intervention and the intervention demonstrates innovation incorporating undergraduate students as mentors and role models to adolescent girls. Further research is needed to clarify the roles and responsibilities for the PA-leaders. Introduction: Comprehensive school-based physical activity PA interventions exist which are efficacious when tested under research conditions, however they often require adaptation for implementation at scale.
Conclusion: Five main modifications were made to scale the intervention, in line with implementation and scale-up frameworks. Introduction: There is a growing interest in school-based interventions providing additional physical activity outside of physical education. Subsequently, many school based running programmes are being implemented across the UK in a grass roots style movement.
However, research on the implementation of these programmes is relatively underdeveloped. Methods: Nine semi-structured focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of 55 pupils 27 girls and 28 boys aged between five and ten years. Pupils were recruited from five schools in England who had implemented the programme for a minimum of one academic year. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Results: Pupils identified a range of organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal barriers and facilitators to participation. Furthermore, schools should evaluate the delivery of the programme, and what impact it is having on pupils, to allow adaptation and tailoring.
Development of an agent-based model to explore population patterns and trends of leisure-time physical activity. Introduction: Most of the actions aiming to promote leisure-time physical activity LTPA at population level showed small or null effects. Approaching the problem from a systems science perspective may shed light on the reasons for these results. We developed an agent-based model to explore how the interaction between psychological attributes and built and social environments leads to the formation and evolution of LTPA patterns in adult populations. The model represents a stylized community containing two types of agents: people and LTPA sites.
People interact with each other proximal network and perceived community and with the built environment LTPA sites over time. Each iteration is equivalent to one week and we assessed a period of 10 years. Results: The model was able to reproduce population temporal trends of intention and LTPA reported in literature. Putting physical activity and sedentary behaviours into context: a systems science perspective for measuring the interplay of multiple lifestyle health behaviours in daily living.
Introduction: Interventions targeting multiple health behaviours may be more effective than interventions targeting only one health behaviour. The purpose of this study is to establish the multidirectional relationships between seven modifiable lifestyle risk factors alcohol use, diet, sleep, stress, physical activity PA , sedentary behaviours SB , and tobacco use by using a systems science perspective.
Methods: This study is part of a larger prospective two-site UK and US pilot study on lifestyle cancer risk behaviours. The study consists of two research laboratory visits and a day data collection period between the visits, during which participants will complete daily diaries on their health behaviours, and they will wear a research-grade accelerometer Actigraph GT9X Link on their wrist to objectively measure PA, SB, and sleep.
Results: The results will be analysed to identify the key components of PA and SB systems, to determine how the components are related, what feedback loops operate in the system, what are potential barriers and sources of resistance to change, and to identify potential behavioural outcome delays. Conclusion: Using a novel systems science perspective on multiple interrelated health behaviours, this study will improve our understanding on how lifestyle health behaviours are interrelated, and how to manage interdependence and potential non-linearity across multiple health behaviours in behavioural change interventions.
Participating adolescents egos nominated up to 10 significant others alters. Egos reported alter behaviours e. Relationships were examined with Spearman rank correlations. Social network analysis was performed in 46 adolescents mean age On average each ego nominated 6.
Average degree centrality an indicator of greater ties between alters was 0. Findings suggest that fewer opportunities for face to face interactions may be contributing to increased sedentary time. The findings help identify key social and environmental targets to enhance interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour. Multivariate analyses of covariance, which controlled for household income, were computed in Stata software Conclusion: Gender differences in PA exist, with boys typically more active than girls. The extent to which parenting practices reinforce this socialization process needs to be further investigated in light of the study findings.
PA parenting practices were measured using an expert-developed item bank composed of 3 main domains of parenting practices: control, autonomy support and structure. A questionnaire administered to children assessed PA motivation and three self-determination constructs autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Stata version Play as a context for motor development in preschool children: a compositional analysis.
Introduction: Play is suggested as an important context for physical development in preschoolers. However, empirical studies examining associations between fundamental movement skills FMS and play behaviors are lacking. This study aimed to examine associations between play behaviours during recess and FMS in typically developing preschool children.
A compositional data analysis was undertaken to examine associations between these play behaviours and FMS. No associations were found between total skills score and group size or social interaction. Conclusion: The findings suggest that play behaviors during recess may not be associated with FMS development. Preschool children may need more structured play or a richer playground environment to foster the development of FMS including a wider variety of fixed and mobile play equipment. However, future studies should consider more detailed systematic observation tools to assess play behaviors and observe children for a longer duration.
Eline H. English 2 , JiHoon E. Southey 3 , Graham G. Giles 2 , Roger L. Milne 2 , Brigid M. Lynch 2. Introduction: Emerging evidence suggests that physical activity may exert beneficial effects on health via DNA methylation. We performed an epigenome-wide association study of physical activity and DNA methylation in peripheral blood. Linear mixed modelling was performed to assess cross-sectional associations between the physical activity measures and DNA methylation at , individual CpG sites, with adjustment for potential confounders and batch effects.
Results: Participants Conclusion: Physical activity may be associated with DNA methylation in peripheral blood at specific genes potentially related to disease development. Further research using objective activity data and larger sample sizes is warranted. The nested case-control methylation studies were supported by the NHMRC grants , , , , and Implementation and maintenance of a school-based multicomponent physical activity intervention.
Introduction: School-based physical activity interventions have to a large extent shown no or small effects, which could be caused by incomplete implementation. Current research in the field focuses mainly on measuring effects, whereas factors related to implementation and maintenance has been explored and reported much less. A collective case study is used and 18 teachers from the five best implementing schools participated in focus group interviews 20 months after intervention start-up.
Results: The interviews revealed differences in implementation and maintenance across components and between schools. Eight factors were consistent for higher implementation and maintenance: development of teacher competence and self-efficacy; shared decision-making and agreement to participate; school management prioritising, planning and structuring; long-term perspective; all-teachers-participation; preparation time; on-going support from the expert team; and compatibility between the intervention and school structure and capacity.
Conclusion: This study points the attention to eight practical factors, which future school-based interventions should attend to. Most importantly precautions should be taken to secure that interventions are compatible with the schools and teachers and that the intervention can be adapted without losing effect.
External funding details: The study is funded by a donation from the non-profit foundation TrygFonden, Denmark. Translation and scale-up of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity in schools and workplaces. Scaling up the Transform-Us! The Transform-Us! Key learnings and challenges faced in each phase of the Transform-Us!
Methods: Transform-Us! Adaptations to the training and material delivery have been made based on extensive piloting. Real-world implementation and effectiveness of the Transform-Us! Results: Considerations in translating the efficacious Transform-Us! Conclusion: Learnings from this implementation trial will provide valuable information regarding the challenges and successes of research to practice translation.
The generalisability of this school-based approach is also being tested in the UK. Introduction: Physical education PE provides students with an opportunity to be physically active, and a chance to learn, practice, and execute new motor skills. The quality of PE varies across Canada, however, as generalist teachers i. Objectives: This study explored the self-efficacy of generalist and specialist teachers i. Methods: Elementary school teachers across Canada were invited via social media to take part in an online survey to examine their self-efficacy to teach PE.
The Teacher Efficacy Scale for Physical Education, a valid and reliable tool, assesses four domains of teacher self-efficacy: motivation, analysis of skill, preparation, and communication. Data collection is ongoing and will cease in Spring Results: Mean self-efficacy scores for both generalist and specialist PE teachers for the 4 self-efficacy domains will be presented, along with any differences that may be found between groups.
Future Directions: A preliminary and detailed description of the PE instruction self-efficacy of elementary teachers in Canada will provide an important foundation upon which future research in this area can be conducted. Potential implications for school-based curriculum will also be discussed.
A school-based gamification strategy to reduce obesity: results from a pilot study. Background: School-based interventions have shown mixed results. Most studies have lacked enough statistical power and have been carried out in North America and Europe. We report the results of the gamification strategy and effectiveness of a pilot study in Santiago de Chile. Methods: The Juntos Santiago cluster-randomized trial uses a gamification strategy i. Participants of the pilot study were children in 5th and 6th grade of three schools selected by convenience. Children voted their enrolment and collectively chose the activity reward they were playing for.
The intervention consisted of a healthy snacks and steps challenge. The primary outcome was change in BMI zscore and waist circumference. Unhealthy snacks brought from home reduced by 6. Data from steps challenge was not available due to encryption of activity trackers. We observed statistically significant reductions in zBMI No difference was observed for BMI. Systolic blood pressure reduced on average 5.
The latter changes are likely due to equipment change. Results of the trial in participants will also be presented. Conclusions: Despite the short duration of the pilot, results are promising. The gamification strategy appears to foster community engagement. Attention should be given to data extraction and quality assurance prior the beginning of the trial in Using the classroom and a mix of participatory methods to engage lower education secondary school adolescents in mapping their assets to stimulate active lifestyles: the SALVO project in the Netherlands.
Adolescents in pre vocational education schools in the Netherlands exercise less and are less often member of organized sports organisations compared to their peers from other educational levels. In describing the riots, Christopher talked about the fear and powerlessness that he and others felt as they watched the community descend into chaos and the harsh control of Martial law. They was burning. As the Hill declined, suffering increased. He talked about some older people who were eating cat and dog food to survive. This happens in a country that provides the world with everything.
But we could not provide our own people with a decent way of living. He asked of the U. We hurt ourselves so bad. Anger does that. Maybe it was me. Perhaps it is easier to blame yourself in a situation that is so out of personal control; that begins with the cards so formidably stacked against you. It has allowed them to create chosen family and chosen meanings, even when biological family is broken or nonexistent and larger social and cultural structures are similarly devastated.
Their stories highlight how this creative work of empowerment and love facilitates healing at both individual and community levels. Participants characterized FOCUS Pittsburgh as healing in two major ways: as a source of sanctuary during times of darkness and strife, and as a chance to work and give back to the community. No matter what you hear you still give a person a chance. You could trust them, you could bond with them. You could do anything with them, for real.
And they told me I could come in and sit down for awhile. People were volunteering. People came in donating. They gave me food.
Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship | Vol. 10, No. 1 by UA Community Affairs - Issuu
They gave me coffee. And they kept me warm. And they had an open ear for me. These simple gestures meant the world to her. She felt less alone, more a part of a community, and thus as if her own existence were not only more. She visits there every day to help herself stay on track with her sobriety. For a big milestone birthday, people at FOCUS Pittsburgh threw her a surprise party, the first she ever had in her life. She was overjoyed. They let the light shine on me. And I just hope I can let it shine back. Quentin, who spoke so extensively about his debilitating loneliness, described how his relationship with FOCUS Pittsburgh has provided him with a kind of healing that mental health care could never give.
A wide network of people can reap the benefits. Many of the participants talked about finding meaning through giving back to the community. He has loved helping rebuild houses and giving talks at schools. He spoke of his learning from Father Abernathy, someone who openly listens without overpowering another person with his own agenda. Matthew commented that it is only through this kind of listening that people ultimately can find the space and care for self-discovery.
Miranda also. One other means of healing, empowerment, and engagement with the community that participants discussed is the power of this interview and the sharing process itself. While it understandably was difficult to share such painful stories with other people—strangers—the act of telling the story, and especially the knowledge that it may create a sense of community connectedness, was a potent positive outcome.
It was particularly meaningful for participants to be talking with a group of people, most of whom had come from different cultures and backgrounds. As Quentin noted, isolation is a major problem in this neighborhood. Sherry noted feeling fulfilled through not only the act of telling her story to compassionate interviewers but also through anticipating that her story would be shared with other community members and might be able to help them work with their own lives.
While survivors of trauma and others struggling to make a life for themselves in a harsh world may feel shame or guilt about their experiences, releasing those experiences from the burden of secrecy, as in this interview process, reveals that in actuality, the most private experiences touch other people and can be healing for both the teller and the listener.
Participants can also come to recognize that their stories have a meaningful sociohistorical context and relevance. Thus, they may increasingly be able to politicize their experiences, finding ways to articulate and channel the healing of intergenerational community wounds. With this new information and inspiration, the participants felt they could work together and with the community for healing.
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Impact on Students One student wrote about her experience in the public reading in the journal she was keeping for class. She first described her fears and expectations before the public reading: I am about to leave for FOCUS Pittsburgh community public reading. This is the event we were told about on the first day of class, and it is truly the climax of the course. It is the moment we have been working up to and practicing hard for within the past few weeks. Our script is a culmination of all of our interviews, yet only gives a taste of the richness we have found when speaking to these individuals.
As we were practicing on Wednesday, it was the first time that we were reciting excerpts from the actual transcripts. While we had told each other the stories in our own words when recounting our perspectives in class, hearing the stories as the interviewees actually told them was ten times more impacting. The rehearsal was when the power of our work and of sharing these stories truly began to sink in for me. Our script has many vivid stories that are so important to share, both of pain and of resilience. I hope to be able to bring honor to her experience as a whole. She realized the importance of the narratives and how they touched her.
After the public reading, she wrote: The public reading was so much more of a success than I could have anticipated. When we arrived at FOCUS Pittsburgh, it was steadily raining, the tent was beginning to be assembled half an hour before the reading was scheduled to begin, and there were people everywhere. There was chaos and disorganization. Pittsburgh and of the Hill District community. We all helped out by bringing chairs from the upstairs and assembling them on the stage and in the audience. There was no separation between our class, the people from outside the Hill community who came to listen, and FOCUS Pittsburgh community members.
We all worked to set up the event, and in doing this, we became one as a community, with shared values and a common purpose. I am grateful that the event happened in this way, because it connected all of us in an important way, taking away the formalized boundaries that would normally be automatically put in place.
As I was speaking, the audience was responding, and I knew that they were in the moment with me, as well. When Father Abernathy gave his introduction, he said he was grateful for the rain, because it was symbolic of the struggles that the Hill faces, yet rises to meet in its resilience. I think that was a perfect introduction to the stories we were about to share. As we got started, I noticed a unique atmosphere starting to form.
The audience was completely attentive and appreciative of us being up on stage. As we spoke, all their eyes were on us, and we could all tell they genuinely wanted to hear what we had to share. I could also tell that our class came together in wanting to share our stories, knowing that this was the big moment. We had the important role of being channels of these stories, not just as they were told to us, but also as they impacted us. We were sharing as vulnerable observers. I began to ease into the moment and appreciate how special this was. She was present in the audience, but had left the tent because she could not bear to hear her story being read.
I tried to slow down, speak clearly, giving it the affect I was feeling, and to just be in. It is hoped that this experience will change their interactions with impoverished, undereducated people, as they will have experienced firsthand the challenges the community members face every day, as well as the resilience FOCUS Pittsburgh and perseverance provide. I became very emotional as I sat down, but I was truly grateful for that moment Stokoski, unpublished manuscript.
FOCUS Pittsburgh is involved in Trauma-Informed Community Development and its first community development organizer is working street by street in the Hill to hear stories and talk and work with residents as local people develop the block. Emphasis has been on sharing the findings in this article with policymakers and funding agencies to ensure that the voices in the Hill are heard.
The university also has several faculty and students doing community-engaged teaching in the Hill in a more reflexive way than in earlier notions of service learning. The Voices in the Hill lab is part of a larger project involving both academic and community stakeholders. It is part of a multi-disciplinary effort and has inspired other efforts and articles e. Students will be presenting the focus group stories to the Hill District community. There are many affected communities such as Pittsburgh with blighted neighborhoods that were devastated by urban renewal and other societal inequities.
Other teachers and researchers are participating in community engagement in an effort to improve this legacy e. Conclusion Many white Americans like to think history has no impact on current life Klein, ; Streich, This collection of interviews seeks to articulate and thematize this denied history, as a contribution to efforts to contextualize the Hill District in the larger Pittsburgh community.
For while Pittsburgh has undergone a renaissance in recent decades, reinventing itself after the collapse of the steel industry, the Hill District largely has been left behind. As much of Pittsburgh attains a new identity, becoming a center for medicine, technology, art, culture, and food, debilitated minority communities cannot be ignored. Instead, the unique wisdom of community voices must be honored and respected. These Hill District interviews illustrate the revealing and powerful outcome of inviting community residents to speak for themselves and on their own terms.
We hope that these voices from the Hill will educate policymakers, developers, community stakeholders, and others in Pittsburgh—who are seeking to change and revitalize the Hill District— as well as those throughout the country. Finally, in a more intimate way, as Sherry commented, this project could help to foster. Experiences of trauma often leave people feeling alone, isolated, needing to hide many secrets, and ashamed. The sharing of stories can heal this alienation by illuminating ways in which suffering is not merely or primarily individual, but shared and a core part of the human condition.
In a community like the Hill District, the sharing of stories can help residents see that not only are they not alone, in fact the most profound traumas of their lives are sadly too frequent, as their neighbors also tell stories with similar content and themes. Already, through the experience of these interviews, their presentation, and the Trauma-Informed Community Development initiative at FOCUS Pittsburgh, many people have felt empowered to come forward and help their community with this sharing, meaning-making, healing, and energizing process.
Thus, these interviews ultimately belong to the people who told the stories, and to their neighbors. As seen in this article, the work is crucial, transformative, and life-changing for students and faculty. Until then, we hope this kind of partnering and sharing will benefit both the community and local universities.
References Alter, A. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42 12 , 1,—1, Behar, R. The vulnerable observer: Anthropology that breaks your heart. Boston: Beacon Press. Blouin, D. Whom does service learning really serve? Teaching Sociology, 37 2 , — Deitch, E. Subtle yet significant: The existence and impact of everyday racial discrimination in the workplace.
Human Relations, 56 11 , 1,—1, Denzin, N. The qualitative manifesto. Dubowitz, T. Diet and perception change with supermarket introduction in a food desert, but not because of supermarket use. Retrieved from www. Fullilove, M. Root shock: How tearing up city neighborhoods hurts America, and what we can do about it. New York: New Village Press.
Gergen, M. Performative social science and psychology. Goldberg, S. Meeting the Other: Teaching reflexivity to undergraduates. Goodman, N. The power of witnessing: Reflections, reverberations, and traces of the Holocaust. New York: Routledge. Graham, S. Cities, war and terrorism: Towards an urban geopolitics. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Greenspan, H. On listening to holocaust survivors: Recounting and life history. Westport, Conn. Hodson, G. Processes in racial discrimination: Differential weighting of conflicting information.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 4 , — Howarth, J. Challenges of building community-university partnerships in new poverty landscapes. Community Development, 48 1 , 48— Hughes, L. Harlem selected poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Random House. Josselson, R. The hermeneutics of faith and the hermeneutics of suspicion. Narrative Inquiry, 14 1 , 1— Interviewing for qualitative research. New York: Guilford. Khanlou, N. Participatory action research: Considerations for ethical review.
Klein, B. Taking its bow. Carnegie, pp. Klein, N. The history of forgetting: Los Angeles and the erasure of memory. London: Verso. Koelsch, L. The Humanistic Psychologist. Marriott, L. Experiential learning through participatory action research in public health supports community-based training of future health professionals. Pedagogy in Health Promotion, 1 4 , — McAdams, D. McAdams, R. Lieblich Eds. McBride, B. American Indian and Alaska native mental health research. Aurora, 11 1 , 67— Minkler, M.
Using participatory action research to build healthy communities. Public Health Reports, 2—3 , — Mossman, J. Pratt Eds. Jackson and London: University Press of Mississippi. Orange, D. The suffering stranger: Hermeneutics for everyday clinical practice. Pritchett, W. Reardon, K. Participatory action research as service learning.
New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 73 , 57— Risen, C. A nation on fire: America in the wake of the King assassination. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. Sartre, J. Being and nothingness: The principal test of modern existentialism. New York: Washington Square Press.
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Scott, M. Hill District once beacon of culture. The Pitt News. Simms, E. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 36, 73— Stokoski, E. Spring Unpublished manuscript. Psychology class journal. Streich, G. Is there a right to forget? Historical injustices, race, memory, and identity.
New Political Science, 24 4 , — Thurman, P. Community readiness: The journey to community healing. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 35 1 , 27— Phenomenology of practice: Meaning-giving methods in phenomenological research and writing. Weiss, L. Working method: Research and social justice. Wilkerson, I. Yalom, I. Existential psychotherapy. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Acknowledgments The authors thank the National Endowment for the Humanities for funding this study.
They gratefully acknowledge assistance from Father Paul Abernathy, director, FOCUS Pittsburgh, Donovan Wright and his team of students, the students who took the course and conducted interviews in — , and the participants who generously shared their stories. About the Authors Susan G. In an oversight, Dr. Matthew J. Voices in the hill: Stories of trauma and inspiration. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship, 10 1 , 9— Walsh, Matthew J. Designing accessible mental health care in an urban community: Lived experiences of key stakeholders planning emergent community-based services, Doctoral Dissertation, Duquesne University.
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Susan G. Jayaratne Abstract Landscape-scale conservation has become a popular approach for addressing complex land and water issues. Achieving this level of conservation requires regional collaboration that evokes a variety of approaches tailored to fit the scope and nature of the particular issues. In many states, military training grounds are a part of the rural landscape, resulting in significant interest from the military services in the maintenance and enhancement of land uses that are compatible with their operations.
Many programs and initiatives are managing this issue utilizing a landscape-scale approach based on a recognition of the interconnectedness of interests. To date, there has been limited research on military partnerships related to land conservation. In order to better understand how engaging stakeholders from various sectors impacts the initial stages of military-based partnerships for landscape-scale conservation, this study explores climate, processes, people, policies, and resources—five variables that shape cross-sector partnerships, an important theoretical framework for evaluating such collaborative partnerships.
Landscape-scale conservation efforts also operate with various governance arrangements and at diverse geographic scales McKinney et al. To date, research efforts are limited to military partnerships addressing encroachment and incompatible land use for lands buffering military installations, but little effort is shown in protecting such things as military flight paths or what is often referred to as away spaces. Lachman et al. They found that bringing together a diverse group of partners helps to leverage diverse types of funds and funding sources Lachman et al. Besides directly funding investments, partners also contribute significant time, skills, expertise, and other resources to conservation buffering Lachman et al.
This does not mean that military partnerships do not run into issues. Policy guidance for military-based partnerships is often inadequate and thus, there are inefficiencies in execution of partnership projects. This can be a significant obstacle to buffering. Even though research indicates that the military has had success in levering diverse partners in buffering military installations from incompatible land uses and encroachment, little is understood about military-based partnerships for landscape-scale conservation. Climate: Social and Political Melaville and Blank identified the social and political climate of an area as the first factor likely to influence a cross sector partnership.
Processes: Communication and Problem-Solving Melaville and Blank identified the processes of communication and problem solving as the second critical variable in creating and sustaining interagency efforts. Successful partnerships are able to. People: Leadership and Participation Melaville and Blank identified the people who lead, participate in, and eventually implement the activities of cross-sector initiatives as the third variable affecting the growth and development of joint efforts. Policies: Governing of Partnering Organizations A fourth variable affecting interagency partnerships is the set of governing policies that each agency brings to the table.
The natural tendency of participants to maintain their distinctive organizational characteristics gives rise to the turf issues that many joint efforts experience Gray, When the laws, regulations, and standard operating procedures of participating agencies are perceived as generally compatible with each other and the goals of the collaboration, conflict is minimal. However, when substantial differences exist, adjustments and accommodations are necessary to improve their fit.
Resources: Availability The availability of resources will determine if the efforts of collaborative partnership will become. In collaborative ventures, resources of all kinds must be pooled and reconfigured to achieve the hoped-for results. The continuity of funding is as important as the amount of money available. The partnership must be held accountable for the resources through measuring, monitoring, and meeting the objectives within a reasonable period of time. Study Area North Carolina is a rapidly urbanizing state. It is the 9th most populated state in the nation and by it is projected to rise to the 7th largest, with The Partnership Study participants represent a range of organizations including: academia, state agriculture and environmental agencies, military, environmental and agricultural non-government organizations, and economic development organizations.
They were either involved in the inception of the partnership, a member of the overall steering committee, or a key collaborator. These partners and key stakeholders served an important role in the creation of the Sentinel Landscapes Partnership, which began with focusing on four initiatives. The initiatives are designed to conserve and protect the interests the partnership values — working lands, conservation, and national defense. These initiatives include developing and implementing tools that foster landscape-scale conservation, creating and delivering a working lands conservation professional training and landowner.
Methodology Using an intrinsic case study design Yin, , we explored partnership documents as well as partner and key stakeholder perceptions to understand how the variables that shape cross-sectoral partnerships impact the initial stages of military-based partnerships for landscape-scale conservation. Once Institutional Review Board IRB approval was obtained, purposive sampling was used to identify the initial study participants based on their influence on overall partnership decision-making. Additional participants were selected using the snowball sampling approach, where each of the initial participants identified additional subjects to interview based on their reputation and influence among key stakeholder groups.
There were a total of 13 participants selected that represented a variety of agencies, organizations, and interests. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant. These interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded. The constant comparative method was used for data analysis, requiring analysis to begin simultaneously with data collection. Bias was kept in check by constantly comparing new data to previously received data.
Categories that were developed were constantly reviewed and combined to form more current categories that coincided with the developing research. As part of the constant comparative method, content analysis was completed during data triangulation to analyze organizational documents.
This approach encompassed open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The categories that emerged were then used to understand and complete a holistic view of the Sentinel Landscapes Partnership. These tenets include credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. The researchers were engaged with the partnership for approximately three years, which allowed for the development of a holistic and comprehensive understanding of the case and the development of trust among study participants.
Over the three years of engagement the researchers had the opportunity to observe the participants by attending more than 20 in-person partnership meetings, more than 30 partnership conference calls, four partnership-related landowner workshops, and three other partnership events resulting in hundreds of hours of engagement and observation.
Researchers analyzed documents and triangulated those against the semi-structured interviews data in order to gain a deeper understanding of the findings that emerged Berg, After each interview was transcribed, the researchers provided the participants transcripts of their interviews to check for accuracy. A team of peers was formed to take part in the debriefing process based on their knowledge of the partnership, qualitative methods and partnership evaluation. After each step in the analysis process researchers created a memorandum for the team, updating them on the study process and data analysis.
The peer debrief team provided guidance throughout the process by suggesting revisions to categories and reviewing themes with the researchers. Once feedback was provided, the researchers would correct and change the developing analysis. Negative case analysis was conducted to explore all exceptions that emerged during analysis through subsequent interviews and literature review to account for the exception and confirm patterns emerging from the data. This analysis provided overall direction for the presentation of study findings but was not explicitly stated within the findings themselves.
It was used as a measure to ensure that the research process was not pursuing interpretations of events that were not shared among multiple participants or presented in previous studies. Dependability To ensure the dependability of the study a dependability audit trail Berg, ; Dooley, was constructed based on detailed notes taken throughout the study. Each auditor was provided detailed notes that outlined the overall research process, the evolution of the process through analysis, and associated thoughts and decisions along the process. Confirmability A closely related confirmability audit trail was also constructed in order to authenticate the confirmability of the study.
The audit trail provided detail for how data were collected, how categories were derived, and how decisions were made throughout the inquiry Merriam, The audit trail provided an organizational structure to understand the relationship between the conclusions, interpretations, and recommendations by clearly linking to the data sources themselves. The researchers used multiple methods of triangulation including triangulation of sources and analyst triangulation to help facilitate a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of interest. Journal entries were completed. The researchers documented bias that related to both personal experience and beliefs as well as experience with the partnership throughout the research process.
Findings Climate: Social and Political The partnership was thrust into an environment that exhibited characteristics of both a positive and negative climate. Leaders in agriculture, forestry and conservation were cognizant of the need to work collaboratively to effectively address mutual issues and had already begun work to address the issues facing rural landscapes.
Multiple partners identified frustration among the local supporters of the OLF based on misinformation provided by the Navy. Based on the experience with the OLF, it was evident that there were still leaders who were agitated and who influenced the implementation of the innovative conservation strategy known as the Market-Based Conservation Initiative MBCI.
The partnership developed a steering committee in order to represent the diverse interests and needs associated with the context of management. The partnership realized that the meetings were not producing the type of outcomes they wanted and altered the meeting structure to promote effective group discussion. People: Leadership and Participation A key strength of the Sentinel Landscapes leadership was its ability to leverage pre-existing relationships to create a diverse partnership. Before the partnership was established, brainstorming meetings were held that included approximately 30 different agencies and organizations that represented the interests of working lands, conservation, and national defense in order to understand how to move forward in a collaborative fashion.
Several partners identified the role of the program coordinator as well as all of the partners to help manage the extent of change and turnover. The policy that the partners identified was called A, which evokes a real estate transaction process for these agreements. The aforementioned policy resulted in a prolonged and costly process for establishing agreements, which was echoed by several partners and key stakeholders as a challenge associated with the military funding authority.
Several partners expressed that the process of due diligence resulted in extremely high administrative costs that were not anticipated by the Navy and resulted in their decision to abruptly terminate the MBCI pilot. The program initiative lead shed some light on the prolonged and costly process that resulted in the aforementioned suspension of the MBCI.
Symposia: Monday 15 October
Resources: Availability The partnership realized that in order to achieve their overarching goals in the midst of public funding limitations it would require the adoption of a match funding strategy. Even amidst this realization, multiple partners felt that the partnership initially fell short of attaining the necessary funding needed for long-term success. The partners identified two dynamics where match funding would facilitate success through partnership coordination and mutual gain projects.
Multiple program leads expressed that in order for. It was evident that the partnership understood the benefit of match funding based on a subsequent funding proposal submitted to the DOD. While this funding approach was viewed by the partnership as a win, it did not cover the administrative components for the management of the partnership. In order to effectively develop and implement these multiple benefit projects, the partners felt that there is a significant amount of coordination and administration that must be taken into consideration in the match funding paradigm in order to develop a true match scenario.
In order to successfully coordinate the breadth of projects under the Sentinel Landscapes umbrella, it requires multiple avenues to disseminate funds that provide enhanced flexibility. Multiple partners admitted that not enough attention was provided to the level of flexibility in funding due to the overreliance on a single mechanism for administering program funds. The partners expressed an ability to create flexibility through the utilization of multiple funding structures as well as developing related funding contracts that integrate flexibility.
Unfortunately public sentiment did not align, as many local communities in eastern North Carolina developed a negative perception of military programs based on previous experience. The manner in which the partnership implemented the MBCI merely exacerbated these perceptions. Several partners and key stakeholders expressed significant concern that the scrutiny of the initiative had negative implications on future cooperative arrangements with the military.
Leadership quickly identified building a broader partnership as a priority and transformed the Sentinel Landscapes project into a Sentinel. Landscapes Partnership. The reach, capacity, and mission of land-grant universities provided an appropriate administrative structure for providing guidance and coordinating diverse stakeholder groups within a statewide partnership. This approach helps overcome a significant shortcoming identified by Lachman et al. Based on the organizational mission of land-grant universities, it provides the necessary leadership that represents the goals and interests to the community at large and cultivates potential allies, which aligns with the belief of Melaville and Blank of what constitutes an effective leadership organization.
This partnership, in comparison with other successful partnerships, has program champions that play an important role in securing resources, attaining institutional support, marketing the efforts and pushing for effective implementation. The unique dynamics of The NC Sentinel Landscapes Partnership resulted in the need for maintaining program champions across multiple sectors but most importantly within the military.
Since relationships were leveraged across various stakeholder groups, the coordinating entity developed a steering committee representing the diverse interests and needs across the context of management. The steering committee approach provided the partnership with a formal. Through a consensus-driven model, the partnership welcomed a diverse set of ideas that was cited as the trademark of the partnership. This aligns with the findings of Wondelleck and Yaffee that show partnerships are able to build on common ground through shared decision-making in which choices within the group were made by consensus.
Accordingly, the partnership was able to constructively explore differences and develop solutions that met the needs and interests of everyone involved. Like other successful collaborative efforts, the partnership was able to identify commonalities of partners rather than their differences, identifying the private landowner as a common link that provided a means to bridge compatible yet disparate interests.
To ensure and maintain an open line of communication for such purposes, a recurring engagement structure of in-person, electronic, and telephonic exchanges were developed by the partnership that resulted in the development of trusting and effective working relationships. Literature highlights the success of many collaborative processes that can be attributed quite simply to the establishment of an opportunity for interaction between parties where one did not previously exist. The need for ongoing and meaningful engagement among a range of stakeholder groups highlights the pivotal role of the coordinating entity, in conjunction with the partners, of managing for turnover and change across the context of management.
The Sentinel Landscapes Partnership did not have such a process in place, which compromised its ability to move forward expeditiously as new members were introduced into the group. The coordinating entity must lead the. According to Wondelleck and Yaffee , successful partnerships institutionalize collaboration by creating and leveraging structures that will allow for the management of change and turnover, thus allowing the partnership to continue beyond its initial efforts.
Leadership identified the importance of strategic communication in order to increase overall awareness of the program, as well as social capital for effective collaboration. The novelty of the program required a strategic approach toward educating a diverse group of stakeholders of the issues the partnership sought to address and in turn the value of the partnership.
Additionally, the extent of actors needed to take compatible action required extensive strategic efforts to communicate up the hierarchy of leadership as well as across the silos of interest. The partnership also identified the utility of mapping the landscape of interest using GIS maps that allows the military to communicate its own priority areas, thus allowing its partners to prioritize resources that can be leveraged to achieve mutual gains through conservation. According to Wondelleck and Yaffee , by identifying a specific geographic location or biophysical feature it provides common ground for which successful cooperative efforts are built and allows the partnership to explore new and innovative strategies for achieving their goals.
In relation to strategic communication, the military needs to be made aware of an ongoing issue related to frequently leveraged authorities for developing agreements with landowners. This aligns with the findings of Lachman et al. Since it can be difficult to engage landowners without. While match funding is important, it is important to consider that it is an unrealistic expectation for all projects to have partners who can match or even come close to matching military funds Lachman et al. One way to overcome this overemphasis on cost-efficiency and one-to-one match strategies is to consider administrative costs.
Program coordination requires administrative work to develop a collaborative forum and associated structure to achieve the stacking of benefits this strategy seeks. Once funds have been attained, these partnership efforts require multiple avenues to disseminate funds that provide enhanced flexibility. While the funding mechanism used by the partnership provided relative flexibility, there are challenges related to future funding and contract extension as a result of DOD process requirements that must be considered, understood, and managed.
Flexibility must be a significant consideration when using funding mechanisms and developing cooperative funding agreements to ensure the availability of resources. Conclusion As collaborative efforts to conserve rural landscapes continue, it is important to understand how to effectively engage leadership among diverse stakeholder groups to achieve sustainable, landscape-scale conservation. The case of the North Carolina Sentinel Landscapes Partnership provides a unique example of military leadership becoming integrated into a collaborative partnership of federal, state, and local agencies and non-government organizations to achieve the.
The scale of these efforts represents a divergence from traditional locally based buffer projects that provide minimal protection to the military training mission and center on relations between an installation and local communities. This case provides insights into the complexity and challenges that result from increasing the scale of conservation and integrating military interests and investment, while also providing a robust set of best practices and lessons learned that should be taken into consideration when leadership across multiple sectors seeks to engage in large landscape partnerships with the military.
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Dennis Hazel is an associate professor and extension specialist in the Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources. Jayaratne is state leader for program evaluation and associate professor in the Department of Agricultural and Extension Education. This article describes how a group of organizations and individuals combined their knowledge and strengths to succeed in crafting an educational policy that was signed into state law.
The Young Parent Working Group is a multidisciplinary coalition that advocates for the educational attainment of expecting and parenting students. This case-study highlights the progression of the initial policy development, the evolution of the group, successful interpersonal processes, legislation, messaging, lobbying for bi-partisan support, and finally the transition to policy implementation and next steps. Introduction High school and middle school students who are expecting a child or parenting have one of the highest dropout rates of any population Perper, Many students experience a life event that requires an adjustment to general school attendance policy, such as those with an illness, injury, or behavioral health issue.
Schools have developed policies so that these students can keep up with their classwork and remain in academic good standing. However, in the typical American public school, students who are expecting or parenting have no such policy to assist them. Responding to this need, a diverse group of advocates developed a strategy to improve the educational environment for expecting and parenting students through legislation.
The Young Parent Working Group, a coalition based in Albuquerque, New Mexico pooled their experience and resources to develop an excused absence policy for expecting and parenting students that was successfully passed and signed into law. The process for this policy development, advocacy, legislation, and implementation is a case study for how community-based organizations can create significant change in education policy at a state level. In addition to these population features, New Mexico also has one of the highest rates of adolescent births and one of the lowest high school graduation rates in the United.
States Annie E. Casey Foundation, Nationally, Hispanic teens have a national birth rate of 46 per 1,, the highest rate of any ethnic group. New Mexico is the first state in the U. The law recognizes that these students need the flexibility to achieve their educational goals, including high school graduation, while managing their responsibilities as parents. Although the federal Title IX legislation ensures that schools do not discriminate on the basis of pregnancy or parenting, this is not enough to prevent the majority of these students from dropping out of school.
The excused absence policy is a step toward educational equity for expectant and parenting students with their peers that are attending school without the addition of being a parent. The New Mexico law was a result of the work of a coalition of community organizations working with young parents to identify their most pressing issues and then developing feasible solutions. In the time since the legislation has passed the coalition has continued to work on barriers to implementation and evaluation. It is important to recognize that adolescent parents may also be students who face barriers in balancing the needs of their child with their responsibilities as students in the educational system.
Educational attainment is one of the most important indicators of lifelong health and economic well-being, but there has yet to be a concerted effort in the U. Increasingly, scholars have begun to tease out the true impacts of young parenting without falling into stigma-based assumptions. Of these social determinants that dictate the outcomes of young parents and their families, the one that most readily influences long-term success is access to education Rumberger, A young person who drops out of high school is less likely to find a job and earn a living wage and more likely to live in poverty and suffer negative health outcomes Rumberger, Although dropout rates in the U.